Solution 03 HEB Supply manufactures airsoft guns used by recreational gamers producing a box of 2 500 air soft ammunition is as follows Direct materials
Solution HEB Supply manufactures airsoft guns used by recreational gamers producing a box of air soft ammunition
Solution HEB Supply manufactures airsoft guns used by recreational gamers producing a box
airsoft guns used by recreational gamers producing a box of air soft ammunition is as follows Direct materials
Solution HEB Supply manufactures airsoft guns used by recreational gamers producing
a box of air soft ammunition is as follows Direct materials
Solution HEB Supply manufactures airsoft guns used by
Solution HEB Supply manufactures
(Solution) 03 HEB Supply manufactures airsoft guns used by recreational gamers. producing a box of 2,500 air soft ammunition is as follows: Direct materials...

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Paper instructions completing the Video and the reading, address the following:1. What is your reaction to the various reasons presented for climate change?2. In what way is climate change linked to national security?3. Setting aside our differences as to the causes of climate change, and acknowledging that it is happening, what (if anything) should be done by nations to mitigate its effects? Or should we just accept that it is happening, that some will suffer during the transition, and that's just the way it is and always has been?What Shanl We Mam? The Tragedy of the Commons The population problem has no technical solution; it requires a fundamental extension in morality. Garrett Hardin At the end of a thoughtful article on the future of nuclear war, Wiesner and York (1) concluded that: "Both sides in the arms race are . .. confronted by the dilemma of steadily increasing military power and steadily decreasing national security. It is our considered profes- sional judgment that this dilemma has no technical solution. If the great pow- ers continue to look for solutions in the area of science and technology only, the result will be to worsen the situa- tion." I would like to focus your attention not on the subject of the article (na- tional security in a nuclear world) but on the kind of conclusion they reached, namely that there is no technical solu- tion to the problem. An implicit and almost universal assumption of discus- sions published in professional and semipopular scientific journals is that the problem under discussion has a technical solution. A technical solution may be defined as one that requires a change only in. the techniques of the natural sciences, demanding little or nothing in the way of change in human values or ideas of morality. In our day (though not in earlier times) technical solutions are always welcome. Because of previous failures in prophecy, it takes courage to assert that a desired technical solution is not possible. Wiesner and York exhibited this courage; publishing in a science journal, they insisted that the solution to the problem was not to be found in the natural sciences. They cautiously qualified their statement with the phrase, "It is our considered profes- The author is professor of biology, University of California, Santa Barbara. This article is based on a presidential address presented before the meeting of the Pacific Division of the Ameri- can Association for the Advancement of Science at Utah State University, Logan, 25 June 1968. 13 DECEMBER 1968 sional judgment. . . ." Vhether they were right or not is not the concern of the present article. Rather, the concern here is with the important concept of a class of human problems which can be called "no technical solution problems," and, more specifically, with the identifi- cation and discussion of one of these. It is easy to show that the class is not a null class. Recall the game of tick- tack-toe. Consider the problem, "How can I win. the game of tick-tack-toe?" It is well known that I cannot, if I as- sume (in keeping with the conventions of game theory) that my opponent un- derstands the game perfectly. Put an- other way, there is no "technical solu- tion" to the problem. I can win only by giving a radical meaning to the word "win." I can hit my opponent over the head; or I can drug him; or I can falsify the records. Every way in which I "win" involves, in some sense, an abandon- ment of the game, as we intuitively un- derstand it. (I can also, of course, openly abandon the game-refuse to play it. This is what most adults do.) The class of "No technical solution problems" has members. My thesis is that the "population problem," as con- ventionally conceived, is a member of this class. How it is conventionally con- ceived needs some comment. It is fair to say that most people who' anguish over the population problem are trying to find a way to avoid the evils of over- population without relinquishing any of the privileges they now enjoy. They think that farming the seas or develop- ing new strains of wheat will solve the problem-technologically. I try to show here that the solution they seek cannot be found. The population problem can- not be solved in a technical way, any more than can the problem of winning the game of tick-tack-toe. Population, as Malthus said, naturally tends to grow "geometrically," or, as we would now say, exponentially. In a finite world this means that the per capita share of the world's goods must steadily decrease. Is ours a finite world? A fair defense can be put forward for the view that the world is infinite; or that we do not know that it is not. But, in terms of the practical problems that we must face in the next few genera- tions with the foreseeable technology, it is clear that we will greatly increase human misery if we do not, during the immediate future, assume that the world available to the terrestrial human pop- ulation is finite. "Space" is no escape (2). A finite world can support only a finite population; therefore, population growth must eventually equal zero. (The case of perpetual wide fluctuations above and below zero is a trivial variant that need not be discussed.) When this condition is met, what will be the situa- tion of mankind? Specifically, can Ben- tham's goal of "the greatest good for the greatest number" be realized? No-for two reasons, each sufficient by itself. The first is a theoretical one. It is not mathematically possible to maximize for two (or more) variables at the same time. This was clearly stated by von Neumann and Morgenstern (3), but the principle is implicit in the theory of partial differential equations, dating back at least to D'Alembert (1717- 1783). The second reason springs directly from biological facts. To live, any organism must have a source of energy (for example, food). This energy is utilized for two puposes: mere main- tenance and work. For man, mainte- nance of life requires about 1600 kilo- calories a day ("maintenance calories'). Anything that he does over and above merely staying alive will be defined as work, and is supported by "work cal- ories" which he takes in. Work calories are used not only for what we call work in common speech; they are also re- quired for all forms of enjoyment, from swimming and automobile racing to playing music and writing poetry. If our goal is to maximize population it is obvious what we must do: We must make the work calories per person ap- proach as close to zero as possible. No gourmet meals, no vacations, no sports, no music, no literature, no art. . . . I think that everyone will grant, without 1243 on April 28, 2016 Downloaded from


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