1 Id-According to the Old Testament, what massacre took place shortly after Moses received the 10 Commandments and why did it take place? Briefly list the main events in Moses’ life according to the Old Testament. Do any Egyptian sources confirm the events narrated in the Old Testament? 2 Id- When was the kingdom of Judah conquered by the Babylonians? Who destroyed the northern kingdom (Israel) and when? Who were the Prophets within Judaism and what was the focus of their message? How what they did and said can be compared to what Jesus did and said? When did Jewish people transition from pastoralism to agriculture and from being nomadic to sedentary? 3 Id-Where and when did Zoroastrianism originate? How did it influence Judaism in terms of the figure of the devil and the idea of afterlife? List 4 ways in which it influenced all Western religions and explain why some people argue that Zoroastrianism provides the foundation for much of Judaism, Christianity and Islam. 4 Id- When and why was the Temple in Jerusalem destroyed for the last time? Explain the differences between Sadducees, Zealots and Essenes. What was the Maccabean Revolt? What festivity celebrates this event? In terms of the 6 Ways, how did Judaism change after the destruction of the temple? 5 Id-What are the similarities and differences between Orthodox, Reform, Conservative and Reconstructionist Judaism? In term of the 6 ways, what is the difference between the Kabbalah and Hasidic mysticism? 6 E-When was the modern State of Israel established? How long had it been since the last time that an independent Jewish state existed? Why is the state of Israel opposed by many Muslim states in the region? Which religions consider Jerusalem a sacred city? What does the term Zionism mean? How did the Enlightenment improve the condition of Jewish peoples in Europe? List 3 examples of European antisemitism. What kind of rationale did Christianity provide for antisemitism? Were Jewish people in Spain treated better under Islamic or Christian rule? When did the Holocaust take place? Approximately how many Jews died because of it? 7 E-Who was Mithra? List 3 similarities between Mithra’s and Jesus’ story? Why did Mithraism disappear? Approximately, how many people follow one of the forms of Christianity? Do we have any independent sources about Jesus written during his lifetime? What are the Gospels? Approximately when were they written? Roughly how many Gospels were written? When were the 4 Gospels canonized? Why is the information you provided so far problematic? What is the Gospel of Thomas? Is it part of the Bible? List at least 2 instances in which the Gospels contradict each other. 8 Id-What is the Resurrection? Which other gods in the Greco-Roman world were said to have been resurrected? What do the Gospels tell us about Jesus childhood, adolescence and early adulthood? Why was Jesus crucified? What was the relationship between Jesus and the Judaism of his times (similarities and differences)? 9 Id- What religion did Jesus practice? What was Jesus’ position on judging others, on accumulation of wealth, on patriotism, and on separation of state and religion? How is this similar and/or different from the positions later taken by mainstream Christianity? 10 Id-Who was John the Baptist? What did Jesus do for 40 days in the desert? What was the political situation during Jesus’ life in his own homeland? Who were the Magi? 11 Id-Who were St. Paul and St. Augustine? When did they live? Why do some people suggest that they may be more important in the history of Christianity than Jesus himself? How did the idea of the end of the world shape Paul’s message? How did the position of Christianity within the empire change by Augustine’s time and how was his message influenced by this new context? 12 Id-What did the Edict of Theodosius in 395 say? Who was Constantine and why is he important in Christian history? The Roman empire was usually tolerant of many religions, so why did they persecute Christians? 13 E-How long did the Inquisition exist for? What was it? What was the Witch Hunt? How was confession obtained? Why were midwives often victims of the Witch Hunt? What is the idea of Manifest Destiny? How can it be justified religiously? How was Christianity used to justify the colonization of the Americas? When did the Crusades take place and what were they? How did St. Augustine lay the theoretical groundwork for the forced conversions of millions of people throughout the world? 14 Id-Who was John Calvin? How did Protestantism contribute to the development of capitalism? Does capitalism seem to fit with Jesus’ message about wealth? What major changes did Martin Luther advocate? What was Martin Luther’s approach on priestly celibacy? Who was St. Francs of Assisi and why was he criticized by Martin Luther? What was Martin Luther’s attitude toward Jewish people? 15 E-Did the creation of Protestantism occur peacefully? Why were many rulers attracted by Martin Luther’s message? In terms of the 6 Ways, how did Protestantism switch the emphasis within Christianity? When did the Council of Trent take place and how did it change Catholicism? Why was the “discovery” of the Americas troublesome for the Church? Why were the astronomical discoveries of Copernicus and Galileo opposed by the Church? What kind of changes took place during the 1962 Second Vatican Council? 16 Id-What are the 7 sacraments of Catholicism? Would it be fair to say that women had a subordinate role in Christianity until Martin Luther pushed for their rights? Why or why not? What factors contributed to the current decline of Christianity in Europe? What are the 3 major subdivisions of Christianity? 17 Id-When and where did Muhammad live? Why is it incorrect to refer to Islam as “Muhammadism”? How did Muhammad see his message in relation to Judaism and Christianity? Why was Muhammad opposed by the Meccan elite? What does Islam mean? Approximately how many followers does Islam have worldwide? 18 E-What are the 5 Pillars of Islam? What are the two main subdivisions within Islam? What do they differ on? Which one is more popular (numerically speaking)? What is Sufism? Which one of the 6 Ways of Being Religious fits Sufism? Why has it sometimes being persecuted by some orthodox Muslims? What is the Hadith? Is there one or multiple versions of the Hadith? What is the Shari’a? Why is the Shari’a followed by some Islamic governments but not by others? When was the role of Caliph abolished? What terminated the Abbasid dynasty? 19 Id-At various times, Muslim governments have persecuted Jewish and Christian peoples or have allowed them to retain their religion. What was the most typical policy? How did most Muslims governments in the past approach the issue of freedom of religion for people who did not follow Judaism, Christianity, or Islam? 20 Id-How did the Nation of Islam under Elijah Muhammad differ from orthodox Islam? How did the war in Afghanistan contribute to the growth of Islamic fundamentalism? Which 1979 revolution has been heralded as a model for Islamic fundamentalism? What does the Koran say about righteous warfare? How was 9/11 justified by Islamic extremists? 21 Id-List 4 similarities between Christianity, Judaism and Islam. List 2 differences between Judaism and Islam, 2 between Judaism and Christianity, 2 between Islam and Christianity. 22 Id-What difference do you see between the view of sexuality held by Islam and Judaism and the one held by early Christianity? What is Tantrism? Is it part of which religions? What is the Taoist approach to sex? Is asceticism important in most Animistic cultures? What is the Song of Songs (aka Song of Solomon)? 23 E-What is Stannard’s argument about the connection between the genocide of American Indian peoples and Christian teachings about sexuality and “Holy” War? List 2 examples of how Christian teachings about sexuality affect modern American culture. Which one of the subdivisions of Christianity is still officially against contraception? List 3 religions that have strong sanctions against homosexuality. According to St. Augustine when is sex not sinful? According to St. Paul what is the ideal behavior in terms of sexuality? According to the Gospels, what was Jesus’ position on divorce and on sexual fantasies? 24 Id-List 3 examples of religious traditions using mind-altering substances. What is Amanita Muscaria? According to Gordon Wasson, which religious tradition was influenced by it? The use of mind-altering substances may fit best with which 2 of the 6 Ways of Being Religious described in class? 25 E-When did the Native American Church gain popularity among the tribes of North America? What 3 sources do various chapters of the Native American Church borrow from? Why have members of the Native American Church been arrested for much of the 20th century? Why were they denied freedom of religion by the U.S. Supreme Court in the early 1990s? What did Justice Anthony Scalia mean when he said that religious diversity is a luxury that the United States cannot afford? What is their legal status today? 26 Id-Where and when was the Baha’i religion created? What is its position toward other religions? Why was it (and still is) persecuted? What is its view of women, nationalism, relationship between religion and science, and concepts such as heaven and hell and the figure of the devil? 27 Id-In class we said that the modern world is seen the growth of both universalism and fundamentalism. What are they and what do they argue? What are their attitudes toward globalization? Why is the division of church and state problematic? Why is it necessary? 28 E-In what year was “The Age of Reason” published? What is the religious view embraced by Thomas Paine? How does Thomas Paine view Jesus? What is the essence of Paine’s argument? List at least 3 reasons why Paine holds a negative view of the Bible. Why does he believe Christianity to be hostile to science? What relationship—in Paine’s mind—should exist between religion and science? 29 Id-What role does nature play in Paine’s worldview? What does he say about the doctrine of Redemption? What does he say about miracles? What is his opinion of the Book of Ruth? What is Paine’s opinion of St. Paul? 30 E-All of the following are based on Create Your Own Religion. How do Confucian ideals regarding sex differ by gender? How and why is Jerusalem described sexual terms in in some passages of the Old Testament? What was Ikkyu’s attitude toward sexuality and how did it fit within Buddhist teachings? What is striking about the temples at Khajuraho? In the Judeo-Christian tradition, what punishments does God inflict because of Eve’s transgression? How are many religions changing their message in regards to patriarchy? How does the New Testament seem to differ from the Old Testament in regards to accumulation of wealth? 31 Id- All of the following are based on Create Your Own Religion. How does the Ojibwa belief about “windingo” relate to accumulation of wealth? According to the Gospels, why did Jesus at first refused to heal a non-Jewish woman? What is a possible relationship between laughter and religious dogma? Explain the argument presented in the book for the possible connection between faith and fanaticism. 32 Id- All of the following are based on Create Your Own Religion. Explain the possible pitfalls of relying exclusively on reason as a possible epistemological tool. In which ways did Jesus break Jewish laws? In which way is paradox a central theme of the book? How is the Yin-Yang symbol paradoxical?